Suggested readings for the holidays on Adult Playfulness, Happiness and Well-Being

A new structural model for the study of adult playfulness: Assessment and exploration of an understudied individual differences variable

by Renè Proyer

Adult playfulness is an understudied personality trait. A new 28-item questionnaire (the OLIW) is proposed that assesses four basic components; namely, Other-directed, Lighthearted, Intellec- tual, and Whimsical playfulness. Study 1 provides support for the factorial validity in an Exploratory (N = 628) and a Confirmatory Factor Analysis (N = 1168). Item- and scale-statistics were satisfactory. Cor- relations in the expected range with other playfulness questionnaires provide support for the convergent validity of the scale; there was between 3 and 30% shared variance with the big five personality traits. Test-retest reliabilities were between 0.67 and 0.87 for one-week, two-week, one-month, and three-month intervals (N = 200; using a reduced set of 12 items). Study 2 found convergence between self- and peer- reports in the expected range (i.e., 44–0.57). Participants in Study 3 (N = 295) collected daily behavior ratings for 14 days for Play, Aggression, Exhibitionism, and Impulsivity, and completed respective trait measures on day one. The OLIW demonstrated correlations between 0.29 and 0.36 for the aggregated behavior ratings, which was in the expected range. Overall, the findings for the psychometrics, reliability (internal consistency, test-retest), and validity (factorial, convergent, discriminant) are satisfactory and further use of the OLIW is encouraged.

How Healthy and Unhealthy Values Predict Hedonic and Eudaimonic Well-Being: Dissecting Value-Related Beliefs and Behaviours

by Agnieszka Bojanowska & Łukasz D. Kaczmarek 

Despite a strong link between values and well-being, little is known about dimensions moderating this link, e.g., whether individuals who act upon their values experience greater well-being for healthy values (e.g., self-transcendence) and lower well-being for unhealthy values (e.g., self-enhancement). Moreover, research on values and value-related behavior has rarely accounted for hedonic and eudaimonic well-being at the same time. Thus, we aimed to examine how values, value-related behaviors, and their interaction relate to hedonic and eudaimonic well-being. We expected that ‘healthy’ values would correspond with higher well-being and unhealthy values with lower well-being. A community sample representative of young adults (N = 1161) reported their values, value-related behavior, and well-being. We found that for most values, behavior was an additional independent predictor of well-being related either to even more (e.g., self-transcendence) or less (e.g., self-enhancement) positive outcomes. For some values, behavior moderated the link between beliefs and well-being by boosting (self-transcendence) or suppressing it (conservation). We also found different links between hedonic versus eudaimonic well-being, e.g., self-enhancement and openness to change. This study presents the importance of asking about value-related beliefs, behaviors, their congruence, and specific facets of well-being when analyzing the value and well-being link. We conclude that some values are best for well-being when they remain passive, with little accompanying behaviors (self-enhancement or conservation), whereas others provide more benefits when individuals act upon them (self-transcendence).

Journal of Happiness Studies. An Interdisciplinary Forum on Subjective Well-Being

Editorial board:

The international peer-reviewed Journal of Happiness Studies is devoted to theoretical and applied advancements in all areas of well-being research. It covers topics referring to both the hedonic and eudaimonic perspectives characterizing well-being studies. The former includes the investigation of cognitive dimensions such as satisfaction with life, and positive affect and emotions. The latter includes the study of constructs and processes related to optimal psychological functioning, such as meaning and purpose in life, character strengths, personal growth, resilience, optimism, hope, and self-determination. In addition to contributions on appraisal of life-as-a-whole, the journal accepts papers investigating these topics in relation to specific domains, such as family, education, physical and mental health, and work. 

The journal provides a forum for three main areas in happiness research:
1. theoretical conceptualizations of well-being, happiness and the good life;
2. empirical investigation of well-being and happiness in different populations, contexts and cultures;
3. methodological advancements and development of new assessment instruments.

The journal addresses the conceptualization, operationalization and measurement of happiness and well-being dimensions, as well as the individual, socio-economic and cultural factors that may interact with them as determinants or outcomes.

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